Since Athenian politicians were often indicted by their opponents, there was not always a clear distinction between "private" and "public" cases, and thus a career as a logographer opened the way for Demosthenes to embark on his political career. ^ Aeschines reproached Demosthenes for being silent as to the seventy talents of the king's gold which he allegedly seized and embezzled. [94] Demosthenes however reversed Aeschines' initiatives and Athens finally abstained. Enfin, il prend Abdère, près de l'embouchure du Nestos, et Maronée (en) sur la côte thrace. Philippe a été incarné au cinéma par les acteurs suivants : Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. According to Jacqueline de Romilly, a French philologist and member of the Académie française, the threat of Philip would give Demosthenes' stances a focus and a raison d'être. [14] Demosthenes also had a daughter, "the only one who ever called him father", according to Aeschines in a trenchant remark. Intervention dans les affaires de Thessalie et de Phocide, Hégémonie macédonienne et la Ligue de Corinthe, « J'ai fait le bornage de la terre de Pélops », « A-t-on retrouvé les restes de Philippe II de Macédoine, le père d'Alexandre le Grand ? Although his father left an estate of nearly fourteen talents (equivalent to about 220 years of a labourer's income at standard wages, or 11 million dollars in terms of median U.S. annual incomes). Throughout his career "we trace the same combination of earnest patriotism with wise and long-sighted policy." [98], While the Athenians and the Thebans were preparing themselves for war, Philip made a final attempt to appease his enemies, proposing in vain a new peace treaty. [54], In 354 BC, Demosthenes delivered his first political oration, On the Navy, in which he espoused moderation and proposed the reform of the symmoriai (boards) as a source of funding for the Athenian fleet. La haine qui oppose les deux hommes culmine quinze ans après, avec la gifle que Midias assène en plein théâtre à Démosthène alors qu’il finance l’un des chœurs qui s’y produit en l’honneur de Dionysos.Réunis en un même volume, les Contre Aphobos I & II, qui sont les toutes premières compositions de Démosthène, et le Contre Midias permettent de découvrir à la fois l’homme privé et le personnage … E. M. Burke, "The Early Political Speeches of Demosthenes", 177–178. He idealized his city and strove throughout his life to restore Athens' supremacy and motivate his compatriots against Philip II of Macedon. [5] Nevertheless, the accuracy of these allegations is disputed, since more than seventy years had elapsed between Gylon's possible treachery and Aeschines' speech, and, therefore, the orator could be confident that his audience would have no direct knowledge of events at Nymphaeum. The slander that Demosthenes' wife also slept with the boy suggests that the relationship was contemporary with his marriage. À l'appel de l'un des rois, il assiège la forteresse d'Héraion Teichos (en), au bord de la Propontide. C. Wooten, "Cicero's Reactions to Demosthenes", 38–40. [133], Demosthenes was apt at combining abruptness with the extended period, brevity with breadth. His ideas and principles survived, influencing prominent politicians and movements of our times. However, when an Athenian delegation arrived at Pella to put Philip under oath, which was required to conclude the treaty, he was campaigning abroad. [117], After Alexander's death in 323 BC, Demosthenes again urged the Athenians to seek independence from Macedon in what became known as the Lamian War. [157] After his death, texts of his speeches survived in Athens (possibly forming part of the library of Cicero's friend, Atticus, though their fate is otherwise unknown), and in the Library of Alexandria. [h], In 348 BC, Philip conquered Olynthus and razed it to the ground; then conquered the entire Chalcidice and all the states of the Chalcidic federation that Olynthus had once led. Il épouse en troisième noces la thessalienne Philinna, probablement membre de l'aristocratie de Larissa, afin de réconcilier les deux cités[4]. [119], Plutarch lauds Demosthenes for not being of a fickle disposition. [123] According to Professor of Greek Arthur Wallace Pickarde, success may be a poor criterion for judging the actions of people like Demosthenes, who were motivated by the ideals of democracy political liberty. Il se fait accorder la tête de l'expédition, détruit Amphissa et progresse en Phocide et en Béotie jusqu'aux portes de l'Attique. [27] According to Sir Richard C. Jebb, a British classical scholar, "the intercourse between Isaeus and Demosthenes as teacher and learner can scarcely have been either very intimate or of very long duration". [131] However, he gave the most elaborate preparation to all his speeches and, therefore, his arguments were the products of careful study. [123] He is criticised for having overrated Athens's capacity to revive and challenge Macedon. J.-C., il investit la Thessalie et vainc Onomarchos à la bataille du Champ de Crocus. Alexander admonished them but imposed no punishment. One tactic that Demosthenes used during his philippics was foresight. Apparently, while still under Demosthenes' tutelage, Aristarchus killed and mutilated a certain Nicodemus of Aphidna. [184] His contempt for Philip is forcefully expressed in the Third Philippic 31 in these terms: "...he is not only no Greek, nor related to the Greeks, but not even a barbarian from any place that can be named with honour, but a pestilent knave from Macedonia, whence it was never yet possible to buy a decent slave." "[111], Mogens Hansen, however, notes that many Athenian leaders, Demosthenes included, made fortunes out of their political activism, especially by taking bribes from fellow citizens and such foreign states as Macedonia and Persia. Philippe y voit l'occasion de pousser son influence en Grèce-Centrale de façon définitive. Son premier Philippic était en 352 (il est nommé pour l'homme opposé à Démosthène, Philippe de Macédoine.) [179], e. ^ Both Tsatsos and Weil maintain that Demosthenes never abandoned the profession of the logographer, but, after delivering his first political orations, he wanted to be regarded as a statesman. I think there can hardly be found two other orators, who, from small and obscure beginnings, became so great and mighty; who both contested with kings and tyrants; both lost their daughters, were driven out of their country, and returned with honour; who, flying from thence again, were both seized upon by their enemies, and at last ended their lives with the liberty of their countrymen. [129], According to Dionysius of Halicarnassus, a Greek historian and teacher of rhetoric, Demosthenes represented the final stage in the development of Attic prose. Avant les conquêtes de Philippe II de Macédoine, elle correspond principalement à une partie de la Macédoine grecque actuelle, tandis qu'à […] l'époque moderne, elle englobe non seulement la région grecque, mais aussi des territoires aujourd'hui bulgares et albanais et l'ensemble de l'actuelle république de Macédoine. E.M. Harris, "Demosthenes' Speech against Meidias". [55] In 352 BC, he delivered For the Megalopolitans and, in 351 BC, On the Liberty of the Rhodians. [189], j. Demosthenes fought as a mere hoplite. Démosthène, au contraire, qui payait mal de sa personne sous les armes, comme dit Démétrius, et qui n'était pas complètement invincible à l'appât des présents ; Démosthène qui, tout en se montrant inaccessible à l'or de Philippe et de la Macédoine, ouvrit sa porte à celui qu'on envoyait de la haute Asie, de Suse et d'Ecbatane [25], et consentit à s'en souiller. According to Polybius, the only thing the Athenians eventually got by their opposition to Philip was the defeat at Chaeronea. According to historian Thomas Babington Macaulay, in his time the division between political and military offices was beginning to be strongly marked. He delivered his first judicial speeches at the age of 20, in which he argued effectively to gain from his guardians what was left of his inheritance. According to Plutarch, this name was given him either for his savage and spiteful behaviour or for his disagreeable way of speaking. [47], Between 355 and 351 BC, Demosthenes continued practising law privately while he was becoming increasingly interested in public affairs. [45] He was among the first ever volunteer trierarchs in 357 BC, sharing the expenses of a ship called Dawn, for which the public inscription still survives. The presiding officer of the Council, a Thessalian named Cottyphus, proposed the convocation of an Amphictyonic Congress to inflict a harsh punishment upon the Locrians. Philippi - P. Collart: Philippes, Ville de Macédoine. [k] The Assembly had initially refused to accept him, following Demosthenes' and Phocion's advice, but finally Harpalus entered Athens. 336 avant J.-C. Philippe de Macédoine meurt assassiné ; son fils Alexandre, dit le Grand, lui succède. 14 Par exemple Pseudo-Plutarque, Vie des dix orateurs, 844F et Plutarque, Vie de Démosthène, 6, 4 et 11, 1 (souffle) ; 6, 3 et 8, 7 (manque de hardiesse). [41] An Athenian logographer could remain anonymous, which enabled him to serve personal interests, even if it prejudiced the client. In the case of Aristion, a youth from Plataea who lived for a long time in Demosthenes' house, Aeschines mocks the "scandalous" and "improper" relation. [111] In 336 BC, the orator Ctesiphon proposed that Athens honour Demosthenes for his services to the city by presenting him, according to custom, with a golden crown. These developments worried Philip and increased his anger at Demosthenes. Les philippiques - sur la couronne - contre ctesiphon GF: Démosthène, Eschine: Libros en idiomas extranjeros Selecciona Tus Preferencias de Cookies Utilizamos cookies y herramientas similares para mejorar tu experiencia de compra, prestar nuestros servicios, entender cómo los utilizas para poder mejorarlos, y para mostrarte anuncios. Demosthenes (/dɪˈmɒs.θəniːz/; Greek: Δημοσθένης, romanized: Dēmosthénēs; Attic Greek: [dɛːmosˈtʰenɛːs]; 384 – 12 October 322 BC) was a Greek statesman and orator of ancient Athens. [132] From his part, George A. Kennedy believes that his political speeches in the ekklesia were to become "the artistic exposition of reasoned views". Almost simultaneously, probably on Eubulus' recommendation, they engaged in a war in Euboea against Philip, which ended in a stalemate. [178] Another nickname of Demosthenes was "Argas." The Assembly, however, laid aside Philip's grievances against Demosthenes' conduct and denounced the peace treaty; so doing, in effect, amounted to an official declaration of war. [135] In a now lost letter, Cicero, though an admirer of the Athenian orator, claimed that occasionally Demosthenes "nods", and elsewhere Cicero also argued that, although he is pre-eminent, Demosthenes sometimes fails to satisfy his ears. [3], Demosthenes was born in 384 BC, during the last year of the 98th Olympiad or the first year of the 99th Olympiad. On citera également pour mémoire le compte rendu par Eschine du discours avorté de Démosthène devant Philippe de Macédoine lors de la seconde ambassade (Sur l'ambassade infidèle, 34-35). In 339 BC Philip made his last and most effective bid to conquer southern Greece, assisted by Aeschines' stance in the Amphictyonic Council. He was imprisoned after a proposal of Demosthenes and Phocion, despite the dissent of Hypereides, an anti-Macedonian statesman and former ally of Demosthenes. When Harpalus escaped, the Areopagus conducted an inquiry and charged Demosthenes and others with mishandling twenty talents. During a meeting of the Council, Philip accused the Amfissian Locrians of intruding on consecrated ground. [80] Being very anxious about the delay, Demosthenes insisted that the embassy should travel to the place where they would find Philip and swear him in without delay. Philippe de Macédoine depuis la harangue de Démosthène sur la paix jusqu'à la rupture athéno-macédonienne [Book Review] Alors que les cités grecques l'ont tenu pour quantité négligeable, elles le craignent désormais. Demosthenes grew interested in politics during his time as a logographer, and in 354 BC he gave his first public political speeches. [j] Alexander reacted immediately and razed Thebes to the ground. He went on to devote his most productive years to opposing Macedon's expansion. Sous la direction de Démosthène, la ville de Athènes, à laquelle on ajoute ensuite Thèbes, Il se révolta contre l'hégémonie macédonienne, mais les Athéniens et Thébains ont été défaits en Bataille de Chéronée en 338. Démosthène book. Cela permet d'équiper bien plus de soldats, sans porter atteinte à la qualité de ses troupes. Philippe II de Macédoine (père d'Alexandre le Grand) 382 av. In the three Olynthiacs, Demosthenes criticised his compatriots for being idle and urged Athens to help Olynthus. "Demosthenes, however, he never mentioned at all, although Alexander held him in bitter hatred, and he himself had a private quarrel with him. [186], h. ^ Aeschines maintained that Demosthenes was bribed to drop his charges against Meidias in return for a payment of thirty mnai. Démosthène - Patrice Brun - La vie et la personnalité de Démosthène ont toujours fasciné les historiens. [83] Supported by Thebes and Thessaly, Macedon took control of Phocis' votes in the Amphictyonic League, a Greek religious organisation formed to support the greater temples of Apollo and Demeter. [165] Modern scholars are divided: some reject them, while others, such as Blass, believe they are authentic. [18], Between his coming of age in 366 BC and the trials that took place in 364 BC, Demosthenes and his guardians negotiated acrimoniously but were unable to reach an agreement, for neither side was willing to make concessions. [11] At the age of 20 Demosthenes sued his trustees to recover his patrimony and delivered five orations: three Against Aphobus during 363 and 362 BC and two Against Onetor during 362 and 361 BC. And in me, you will find, this loyalty has persisted unalloyed...For from the very first, I chose the straight and honest path in public life: I chose to foster the honour, the supremacy, the good name of my country, to seek to enhance them, and to stand or fall with them. J.-C. à 336 av. Had his advice to the Athenians and other fellow Greeks been followed, the power of Macedonia could have been successfully checked. Editorial: Fayard. [46] In 348 BC, he became a choregos, paying the expenses of a theatrical production. ", This page was last edited on 27 December 2020, at 06:14. Il doit se résoudre à accepter une alliance avec la cité de Thèbes, alliance qui est scellée par l'envoi de son jeune frère comme otage. According to Plutarch, a special Athenian embassy led by Phocion, an opponent of the anti-Macedonian faction, was able to persuade Alexander to relent. He sought to preserve his city's freedom and to establish an alliance against Macedon, in an unsuccessful attempt to impede Philip's plans to expand his influence southward by conquering all the other Greek states. ", "Two characteristics, men of Athens, a citizen of a respectable character...must be able to show: when he enjoys authority, he must maintain to the end the policy whose aims are noble action and the pre-eminence of his country: and at all times and in every phase of fortune he must remain loyal. Il entreprend dans ce contexte de profondes réformes administratives en mêlant les institutions traditionnelles macédoniennes et celles de la Ligue chalcidienne : la Macédoine est ainsi divisée en quatre districts régionaux (ou mérides) autour de communautés civiques (cités ou ethné). [108][110], Despite the unsuccessful ventures against Philip and Alexander, most Athenians still respected Demosthenes, because they shared his sentiments and wished to restore their independence. Demosthenes learned rhetoric by studying the speeches of previous great orators. [142] Moreover, his delivery was not accepted by everybody in antiquity: Demetrius Phalereus and the comedians ridiculed Demosthenes' "theatricality", whilst Aeschines regarded Leodamas of Acharnae as superior to him. [148] Plutarch drew attention in his Life of Demosthenes to the strong similarities between the personalities and careers of Demosthenes and Marcus Tullius Cicero:[149]. À l'été 349 av. [172], c. ^ According to the tenth century encyclopedia Suda, Demosthenes studied with Eubulides and Plato. [131], d. ^ "Batalus" or "Batalos" meant "stammerer" in ancient Greek, but it was also the name of a flute-player (in ridicule of whom Antiphanes wrote a play) and of a songwriter. La vie et la personnalité de Démosthène ont toujours fasciné les historiens. Cette réforme militaire se fait progressivement au cours du règne de Philippe et est en partie responsable des succès de l'armée macédonienne dans le futur, notamment lors de l'expédition d'Alexandre le Grand[1]. J.-C., devient rapidement une alliance militaire (symmachie) ayant pour finalité l'invasion de l'Asie Mineure alors sous la tutelle des Perses achéménides, le prétexte étant de venger la profanation des sanctuaires grecs lors des guerres médiques et de « libérer » les cités grecques d'Ionie et de Lydie notamment. Bel et rare ouvrage de référence sur l'art de la rhétorique de deux grands personnages de l'histoire - M. L'Abbé D'Olivet - Philippiques de Démosthène et Catilinaires de Ciceron - 1765 Bon état de la reliure, ouvrage dans son plein cuir marron d'origine, bon état des plats et du dos, petits frottements, coiffe However, the use of physical gestures wasn't an integral or developed part of rhetorical training in his day. [38] In 363 and 359 BC, he assumed the office of the trierarch, being responsible for the outfitting and maintenance of a trireme. From then until the fourth centuryAD, copies of Demosthenes' orations multiplied and they were in a relatively good position to survive the tense period from the sixth until the ninth century AD. The steward of his money fled to Rhodes, and was arrested by a Macedonian officer, Philoxenus. According to Demosthenes, the account revealed the misappropriation of his property. A la mort de son frère Perdiccas III, il devint régent pour son neveu Amyntas IV. For a time, Demosthenes made his living as a professional speech-writer (logographer) and a lawyer, writing speeches for use in private legal suits. xi + 558. He was a master at "self-fashioning" by referring to his previous accomplishments, and renewing his credibility.