[11] According to Al-Muwatta, he was tall, heavyset, imposing of stature, very fair, with white hair and beard but bald, with a huge beard and blue eyes. Therefore, leave people with whatever school they follow and whatever the people of each country chose for themselves. [18] For example, when a man asked Malik about the meaning of Quran 20:5, "The Merciful established Himself over the Throne," it is related that "nothing affected Malik so much as that man's question," and the jurist fervently responded: "The 'how' of it is inconceivable; the 'establishment' part of it is known; belief in it is obligatory; asking about it is an innovation. "[26] While both Ibn Taymiyyah and, much more recently, Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab's grandson Sulaymān did indeed reject the authenticity of this tradition,[27] their opinions were characterized by the vast majority of mainstream Sunni scholars such as al-Zarqānī as "stemming either from ignorance or arrogance. campaign of demolishing many of the traditional Islamic heritage sites, http://eshaykh.com/hadith/hadith-abour-imam-malik-r/, Biography of Imam Malik at Lost Islamic History, Abū Muḥrīz Jahm ibn Ṣafwān ar-Rāsibī as-Samarqāndī at-Tirmidhī, Abu’l-Hassan Muqātil ibn Sulaymān ibn Bashīr al-Azdī, Abū Ishāq Ibrāhīm ibn Sayyār ibn Hāni’ an-Nazzām, Abū Alī Muḥāmmad ibn Abdi’l-Wahhāb ibn Sallām al-Jubbā'ī, Abū Uthmān Amr ibn Bhār ibn Māhbūb al-Jāhiz al-Kinānī, List of contemporary Muslim scholars of Islam, Abū Abdi’l-Lāh Ahmad ibn Abī Du'ad Faraj ibn Carīr ibn Mâlik al-Iyādī, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Malik_ibn_Anas&oldid=1008233964, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles having different image on Wikidata and Wikipedia, Articles needing additional references from October 2017, All articles needing additional references, Articles with French-language sources (fr), Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Abu Muhammad Abdullah ibn Abdul Hakam (died 829) wrote biographies and history books, student of Malik ibn Anas, Key: Travelled extensively collecting the sayings of Muhammad and compiled books of hadith, Abū Abdirrahmān Bishr ibn Ghiyāth ibn Abī Karīma al-Marīsī al-Baghdādī (, Abū Muḥāmmad (Abū’l-Hākem) Heshām ibn Sālem al-Jawālikī al-, Abū Mūsā Isā ibn Subeyh (Sabīh) al-Murdār al-Bāsrī (Murdārīyya), Hīshām ibn Amr al-Fuwātī ash-Shaybānī (Hīshāmīyya), Abū Sahl Abbād ibn Sulaimān (Salmān) as-Sāymarī, Abū’l-Hūsayn Abdūrrāhīm ibn Muḥāmmad ibn Uthmān al-Hayyāt (Hayyātīyya), Abū Amr Ḍirār ibn Amr al-Gatafānī al-Kūfī (Ḍirārīyya), Abū ʿAbdillāh al-Husayn ibn Muḥāmmad ibn ʿAbdillāh an-Najjār ar-Rāzī, Abū ʿAbdallāh Ibnū’z-Zā‘farānī (Zā‘farānīyya), Abū ʿAbdillāh Muḥāmmad ibn Karrām ibn Arrāk ibn Huzāba ibn al-Barā’ as-Sijjī, Haisamīyya (Abū ʿAbdallāh Muhammad ibn al-Haisam), Ishāqīyya (Abū Yaʿqūb Ishāq ibn Mahmashādh), Tarā'ifīyya (Ahmad ibn ʿAbdūs at-Tarā'ifī), Abū Abdillāh Mugīre ibn Sāīd al-ʿIjlī el-Bajalī, Abū Amr (Abū Mu‘tamīr) Muāmmar ibn Abbād as-Sūlamī, Abū Sahl Bīshr ibn al-Mu‘tamīr al-Hilālī al-Baghdādī, Abū Hāshīm Abdu’s-Salām ibn Muḥāmmad ibn Abdi’l-Wahhāb al-Jubbā'ī, Abū’l-Huzayl Muḥāmmad ibn al-Huzayl ibn Abdillāh al-Allāf al-Abdī al-Bāsrī, Abū Ma‘n Sūmāma ibn Ashras an-Nūmayrī al-Bāsrī al-Baghdādī, Abū Bakr Muḥāmmad ibn Abdillāh ibn Shabīb al-Basrī, Abū’l-Kāsīm Abdullāh ibn Ahmad ibn Māhmūd al-Balhī al-Kā‘bī, This page was last edited on 22 February 2021, at 07:20. (2) The pre-Islamic Arabs believed that rain was brought about by the movement of stars. Truly, the Prophet was present in this community, he used to send out troops or set forth in person, and he did not conquer many lands until God took back his soul. Then Abu Bakr arose and he also did not conquer many lands. [3], According to classical Sunni tradition, the Islamic Nabi (Prophet) Muhammad foretold the birth of Malik, saying: "Very soon will people beat the flanks of camels in search of knowledge and they shall find no one more expert than the knowledgeable scholar of Medina,"[5] and, in another tradition, "The people ... shall set forth from East and West without finding a sage other than the sage of the people in Medina. Whoever boards it is saved, and whoever remains away from it perishes. It contains nearly … "[35] While several other scholars held both the clipping (qass) and the removal (ihfā') of the mustache to be sunnah, Malik only considered the former to be truly prophetically prescribed, deeming the latter an unpalatable innovation. To take them away from what they have been professing will cause a disaster. [17] G.F. Haddad, on the other hand, argued that Malik was not completely averse to the idea of dialectic theology; on the contrary, Haddad points to Malik having studied 'at the feet of Ibn Hurmuz', a master in dialectic theology, for 'thirteen to sixteen years'. Biography. [13] Thus all of the four great Imams of Sunni Fiqh are connected to Ja'far from the Bayt (Household) of Muhammad, whether directly or indirectly.[14]. The Prophet Muhammad reportedly said in a hadith authenticated by Muhammad ibn `Isa at-Tirmidhi: "Very soon will people beat the flanks of camels in search of knowledge, and they shall find no-one more knowledgeable than the knowledgeable scholar of Madina." The book covers rituals, rites, customs, traditions, norms and laws of the time of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. [2] Referred to as the "Imam of Medina" by his contemporaries, Malik's views in matters of jurisprudence were highly cherished both in his own life and afterwards, and he became the founder of one of the four schools of Sunni law, the Maliki,[2] which became the normative rite for the Sunni practice of much of North Africa, Andalusia, a vast portion of Egypt, and some parts of Syria, Yemen, Sudan, Iraq, and Khorasan,[3] and the prominent Sufi orders, including the Shadiliyya and the Tijaniyyah. [34], Malik was a supporter of tabarruk or the "seeking of blessing through [the veneration of] relics. Malik's chain of narrators was considered the most authentic and called Silsilat al-Dhahab or "The Golden Chain of Narrators" by notable hadith scholars including Muhammad al-Bukhari. The medieval Andalusian Muslim traveler and geographer Ibn Jubayr describes seeing a small dome erected above the tomb of Malik when he visited the cemetery in the later twelfth-century. Malik's Muwatta ("the well-trodden path") is a collection of two items: the sayings and deeds of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) (also known as the sunnah). "[39], According to another narration, al-Mansur, after hearing Malik's answers to certain important questions, said: "I have resolved to give the order that your writings be copied and disseminated to every Muslim region on earth, so that they be put in practice exclusively of any other rulings. I shall write to the leaders of the armies and to the rulers so that they make it law, and whoever contravenes it shall be put to death," Malik is said to have responded: "Commander of the Believers, there is another way. "[35] Furthermore, it is also related that "he always wore beautiful clothes, especially [those that were] white. Imam Bukhari is a famous Hadith expert together with Imam Ahmad, Imam Muslim, Abu Dawud, Tirmidhi, An-Nasai, and Ibn Majah. He memorized the Quran in his youth, learning recitation from Abu Suhail Nafi' ibn 'Abd ar-Rahman, from whom he also received his Ijazah, or certification and permission to teach others. Malik's last words were related by one Isma'il ibn Abi Uways who said, "Malik became sick, so I asked some of our people about what he said at the time of his death. [35] Furthermore, it is also recorded that "when one of the caliphs manifested his intention to replace the wooden pulpit of the Prophet with a pulpit of silver and jewels," Malik exclaimed: "I do not consider it good that people be deprived of the relics of the Messenger of God!" Reliance of the Traveller (Islamic Law) o8.1 - "When a person who has reached puberty and is sane voluntarily apostatizes from Islam, he deserves to be killed." [31] For example, the famous twelfth-century Maliki jurist and judge Qadi Iyad, later venerated as a saint throughout the Iberian Peninsula, narrated a tradition in which a man asked Malik "about something in the inward science," to which Malik replied: "Truly none knows the inward science except those who know the outward science! He was a special student of the great scholar of hadith, Imam Bukhari. ‘Umar, concessions and accommodations of ‘Abd Allāh b. Malik did not accept any marfū‘ hadīth (ascribed to the Prophet) if it was not verbatim transmission of the words of the Muslim prophet Muhammad (he even gave consideration to letters, prepositions and particles like wāw, tā, bā etc. Living in Medina gave Malik access to some of the most learned minds of early Islam. [citation needed], It is reported that Imam Malik selected for inclusion into the Muwatta just over 1900 narrations, from the 100,000 narrations he had available to him. [2], It is considered to be from the earliest extant collections of hadith that form the basis of Islamic jurisprudence alongside the Qur'an. The Imam refused this in 148 AH, but when the Caliph again came to the Ḥijāz in 163 AH, he was more forceful and said:[citation needed], “O Abū ‘Abd Allāh, take up the reign of the discipline of fiqh in your hands. Hadith Collection is a Collection Of Different Books Of Hadith all in one place to make it available for free to all it viewers. ‘Alī b. Muhammad b. Farhūn al-Ya‘murī al-Mālikī, al-Dībāj al-Madhhab fī Ma‘rifah A‘yān ‘Ulamā’ al-Madhhab, 1st ed., vol. "[2] Composed in the early days of the Abbasid caliphate, during which time there was a burgeoning "recognition and appreciation of the canon law" of the ruling party, Malik's work aimed to trace out a "smoothed path" (which is what al-muwaṭṭaʾ literally means) through "the farreaching differences of opinion even on the most elementary questions. [34] Furthermore, it has been argued that none of these reports - all of which relate Malik's disapproving amusement at being told about an instance of group dhikr happening nearby - explicitly display any disapproval of the act as such, but rather serve as a criticism of "some people who passed for Sufis in his time [who] apparently committed certain excesses or breaches of the sacred law. As a result, he faced the necessity of sending out the Companions of Muhammad as teachers and people did not cease to take from them, notable scholars from notable scholars until our time. 80% Of Qur'anic Words: Classified Word Lists 6. "[41] Likewise, al-Haytham ibn Jamīl said: "I saw Mālik ibn Anas being asked forty-eight questions, and he replied to thirty-two of them: 'I do not know. [35], Malik considered following the sunnah of the Prophet to be of capital importance for every Muslim. The reports of the Prophet's sayings and deeds are called ahadith. Online Islamic Bookstore 1111 Conrad Sauer Dr. Suite A Houston, Texas 77043 Tel: (713) 722-0419 It was related by al-Bukhari (also by Malik and an-Nasa'i). [4], Perhaps Malik's most famous accomplishment in the annals of Islamic history is, however, his compilation of the Muwatta, one of the oldest and most revered Sunni hadith collections and one of "the earliest surviving Muslim law-book[s],"[2] in which Malik attempted to "give a survey of law and justice; ritual and practice of religion according to the consensus of Islam in Medina, according to the sunna usual in Medina; and to create a theoretical standard for matters which were not settled from the point of view of consensus and sunna. [2] Born in the city of Medina, Malik rose to become the premier scholar of prophetic traditions in his day,[2] which he sought to apply to "the whole legal life" in order to create a systematic method of Muslim jurisprudence which would only further expand with the passage of time. His grandfather Malik ibn Abi Amir was a student of the second Caliph of Islam Umar and was one of those involved in the collection of the parchments upon which Quranic texts were originally written when those were collected during the Caliph Uthman era. He did not answer me except on five. "[28] Historically, it is known that Malik's statements on the validity of intercession remained a core doctrine of the Maliki school, and practically all Maliki thinkers of the classical era accepted the idea of the Prophet's intercession. "[19][20], Malik was a supporter of the orthodox Sunni doctrine of the beatific vision,[21] and he is said to have cited Quran 75:22-23 ("That day will faces be resplendent, looking toward their Lord,") and 83:15 ("Nay! This hadith is singularly narrated by Yahya ibn Sa'id al-Ansari from Muhammad ... and it is also said that the number is more than seven hundred. Compile your understanding of every issue in different chapters for a systematic book free from the harshness of ‘Abd Allāh b. 1 (Beirut: Dār al-Nashr, Dār al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, 1996), 25. [citation needed] He, however, compiled Muwaṭṭa’, keeping before himself the target of removing the juristic differences between the scholars. [7], "The Hadith for Beginners", Dr. Muhammad Zubayr Siddiqi, 1961 (2006 reprint), Goodword Books. [35], The available physical descriptions of Malik relate that he "was tall, heavy-set, imposing of stature, very fair, with white beard ... [and] bald ... [with] blue eyes. Then he said: ʿIbn ʿIjlān used to say: If the 'alim bypasses 'I do not know,' he will receive a mortal blow. "[2] Hailed as "the soundest book on earth after the Quran" by al-Shafi'i,[3] the compilation of the Muwatta led to Malik being bestowed with such reverential epithets as "Shaykh of Islam", "Proof of the Community", "Imam of the Abode of Emigration", and "Knowledgeable Scholar of Medina" in later Sunni tradition. Malik ibn Anas (Arabic: مَالِك ابْن أَنَس‎, ‎ 711–795 CE / 93–179 AH), whose full name is Mālik bin Anas bin Mālik bin Abī ʿĀmir bin ʿAmr bin Al-Ḥārith bin Ghaymān bin Khuthayn bin ʿAmr bin Al-Ḥārith al-Aṣbaḥī al-Madanī (مَالِك بِن أَنَس بِن مَالِك بن أَبِي عَامِر بِن عَمْرو بِن ٱلْحَارِث بِن غَيْمَان بِن خُثَين بِن عَمْرو بِن ٱلْحَارِث ٱلْأَصْبَحِي ٱلْحُمَيْرِي ٱلْمَدَنِي), reverently known as al-Imām Mālik (ٱلْإِمَام مَالِك) by Maliki Sunnis, was an Arab Muslim jurist, theologian, and hadith traditionist. Ibn ‘Abd al-Barr, al-Tamhīd limā fī al-muwattā min al-ma‘ānī wa al-asānīd, vol. "[6] While some later scholars, such as Ibn Hazm and Tahawi, did cast doubt on identifying the mysterious wise man of both these traditions with Malik,[7] the most widespread interpretation nevertheless continued to be that which held the personage to be Malik. Al Qaida Nooraniah: Shaykh Nur Muhammad Haqqani, Arabic only 5. The Musnad of the Imam Ahmad is one of the most important collections of hadith (it is among the Kutub at-Tis'a - the 9 base books in the hadith). al-Muwatta of Imam Malik (36.18.15) - "The Messenger of Allah said, "If someone changes his religion - then strike off his head." [22][23], When he was asked about the nature of faith, Malik defined it as "speech and works" (qawlun wa-'amal), which shows that Malik was averse to the rigorous separation of between faith and works. [1] Malik's best-known work, Al-Muwatta was the first legal work to incorporate and combine hadith and fiqh (except possibly for Zayd ibn Ali's Musnad). "[36], Accounts of Malik's life demonstrate that the scholar cherished differences of opinion amongst the ulema as a mercy from God to the Islamic community. ‘Abbās and unique views of ‘Abd Allāh b. Mas‘ūd. Seeking knowledge is an obligation upon every Muslim. [citation needed], Composed over a forty-year period, Malik's 'Muwatta' ("Well-trodden Path")—i.e. "[5], Over one thousand disciples of Malik have transmitted this work from him. [29] It is also known, moreover, that the classical "books of the Mālikīs are replete with the stipulation that du'ā [personal supplication] be made while facing the grave. [16], Abdul-Ghani Ad-Daqr wrote that Malik was 'the furthest of all people' from dialectic theology who was the most knowledgeable of their discussions without accepting their views. Qadi Ayyad, Al-Dhahabi and others relate from Sufyan ibn `Uyaynah, ‘Abd ar-Razzaq as-San‘ani, Ibn Mahdi, Yahya ibn Ma'in, Dhu’ayb ibn `Imama, Ibn al-Madini, and others that they considered that scholar to be Malik ibn Anas. Source: Sunan Ibn Mājah 224, Grade: Sahih — Hadith 34 It's said that on the version transmitted by Yahya al-Laithi alone there are around a hundred commentaries. "[34] As both their chains of transmission are weak and not consistent with what is related of Malik elsewhere, the traditions are rejected by many scholars, although latter-day critics of Sufism do occasionally cite them in support of their position.